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Thermal Accumulation in Solar Systems for Hot Water

Stanko Vl. Shtrakov, Anton Stoilov

South - West University “Neofit Rilski ” , Dept of Physics,

66 Ivan Mihailov Str., 2700 - Blagoevgrad , BULGARIA ,

E-mail: sshtrakov@abv.bg , antonstoilov@abv.bg

Abstract - The major impediments for market penetration of solar hot water installations in Bulgaria are the lack of information and experienced data about the efficiency, thermal accumulation of energy and adequate exploitation in different seasons in a year and geographical regions. Defining useful recommendations for different regimes of exploitation, corresponding to the climatic conditions and installation parameters is the main purpose of this work. A special experimental solar module for hot water was built and equipped with sufficient measure apparatus. The main concept of investigation is to optimise the stratified regime of thermal accumulation and parameters of heat exchange equipment (heat serpentine in tank). Accumulation and heat exchange processes were investigated by theoretical end experimental means. Special mathematical model was composed to simulate the energy transfer in a stratified tank. Computer program was developed to solve mathematical equations for thermal accumulation and energy exchange. Experimental equipment with more than 15 temperature sensors and other measure devices gives data for the real processes. Extensive numerical and experimental tests were carried out. A good correspondence between theoretical and experimental data was arrived. Collected experimental and theoretical data from two years' exploitation period is a good base for establishing some important issues about construction and exploitation of solar installation with different consumption regimes. Analysis of collected data were used to make a detailed technical and economical assessment of hot water installations with respect to the climatic and economical conditions in Bulgaria . This data will help designers and investors to expand penetration of the solar energy application in Bulgaria .